I want to post some more worked examples for arguments, but I’ve been chewing over this question for quite a while now, and want to provide some thoughts on what the bulk of test-prep study time should be focused on.
There is a little bit of substantive stuff that is worth making sure you know for each of the tests. Some math maybe, or logic rules for the LSAT. This has to be done. It is also possible to create some things to study for, such as finely grained categories of argument questions. This is usually a waste of time. Or you could just do practice questions until the cows come home, hoping for improved results. The tests are pretty resistant to magical thinking, though.
So what are you studying for?
I like to think of it as taking the decisions out of the test. You want to absolutely minimize (i.e. get to zero) the moments on the test where you are looking at a question and don’t have a plan for solving it. This is different from knowing what the right answer is off the bat. Instead, it is having a process that you know and trust and FOLLOW EVERY SINGLE TIME. My suspicion for the students who take a test prep class, feel like they are improving, and then get the same fucking score as they have gotten at the start, is that they get into the exam and wing it, rather than relying on a set process.
When you are nervous, you make DUMB decisions. Big time DUMB. You are not dumb, but when you are thinking about “ohmygodIhopeIdowellbecause IreallyreallywannagetintoHarvard” you are not at your tip top in thinking through the ins and outs of your approach. It’s just the way the brain works. So the way to cope is not to start thinking “ohmygodIbetternotfreakoutbecausethen I’mgoingtomakebaddecisionsandnotgetintoHarvard” but instead to not make decisions when it isn’t safe. Sort of like not driving drunk.
When you turn the page/click to the next screen, and see a reading comprehension passage, you want to have a tried-and-true process that you don’t question and don’t change on test day. You are going to read the first question stem, skim for an answer, prove every fucking word of your answer choice is addressed in the passage, rinse and repeat. You are not suddenly going to decide that maybe reading the passage first would be a good idea. You aren’t going to go all magical thinking and pick (C) because it just “sounds” like the right answer. You aren’t going to panic about the time and pick the first plausible answer because “whatifI’mtooslowanddon’tfinishontime bettergofasterorImightnotgetintoHarvard.”
You want to walk into the test with a very clear, realistic idea of what your score is going to be and how you are going to earn it. Of course there will be some variation and some moments that may call for a bit of creativity or insight, but that is to be kept to a minimum. If you don’t already know what your score will be, you shouldn’t be taking the test. If you think you know what your score will be but hope it will be lots better, you DEFINITELY aren’t ready to take the test. Instead, you want to work systematically through the question types on your test, and figure out your approach, practice it consistently until you would NEVER do it differently, then move on to the next question type. This is the heart of Test Smashing. The test should be little smithereens before you walk into the test center.